Return to site

Livestock Diseases (Goats, Sheep, Swine)

 

Enterotoxemia type C

"Purple Gut"
- causes hemorrhagic enteritis and bloody scours
-first month or two of life
-SYMPTOMS: depression, bloody scours, abd pain, convulsions, sudden death (within 24 hours)
-TREATMENT: vaccinate preg ewes 30 days before birthing, vaccinate lambs at 2-3 days, then in 2 weeks.

 

Tetanus

-spores germinate in tissue
-symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after entering wound
- sudden noises cause violent contractions of muscles
-SYMPTOMS: sawhorse stance, lock jaw, death when resp muscles become paralyzed
-TREATMENT: clean wound and inj penicillin/antitoxin, vaccinate ewes 30 days before lambing, vaccinate lambs when castrating/docking.

 

Pregnancy Toxemia

"Ketosis"
-occurs in ewes at least 6 weeks of gestation
-low energy, higher growth rate of fetus
-Too thin/ too fat are more susceptible
-SYMPTOMS: poor appetite, lethargy, incoordination, aimlessness walking, recumbancy, death
-TREATMENT: oral propylene gycol 2 oz TID, induce parturition More Bonuses.

 

Types of Vaccines

-Live: contains strains of the infected agent
-modified live: agent replicated, but no symptoms
-killed/inactivated: organism killed; no growth
-autogenous: infection on farm, you make the vaccine from the infection

 

Pneumonia in Sheep

-major cause of economic loss
-cranal ventral part of lung affected first; firm tissue
-adenovirus, parainfluenza, pasteurella, bot flies, chlamydia, mycoplasma
-CAUSES: dust, increase ammonia, drafty barns, nutrient deficiency, crowding, inadequate colostrum and colostral antibodies
-SYMPTOMS: depression, labored breathing, decrease appetite, coughing, fever, nasal/ocular discharge, death
-TREATMENT: micotil, excenel, CTC to mass treat, supportive therapy

 

Contagious Ecthyma

"Sore Mouth" "Orf"
- caused by pox virus
-introduced by new or show animals
- persists in scabs from lesions or pastures
-tiny red nodules on lips turn into blisters then thick brown scabs form
- nursing ewes can get lesions on udders from infected lamb---> causes mastitis
- chronic infections in lambs can lose condition
- TREATMENT: live vaccine on inside thigh (2x) in lambs---> 1 month of age, separate vaccinated from non vaccinated

 

Caseous Lymphadenitis

-found in soil where grazing
-abscesses with thick green pus
-when ruptured, contaminate EVERYTHING
-lymph nodes near head/neck are affected
- internal abscess may affect liver, kidneys, repro track, nervous system
- lose weight and body condition
-TREATMENT: vaccinate, culling, flush and pack with iodine soaked gauze

 

C. Perfringens Type D

"Overeating Disease" "Pulpy Kidney Disease"
- in lambs 1 month of age or older
-CAUSED BY: excess feeding--->increases starch in rumen--->growth of clostridia and toxin production
-SYMPTOMS: excitement, convulsions, incoordination
- causes rapid degeneration of kidneys
-TREATMENT: vaccinate preg ewes 30 day prior to lambing, vaccinate lambs prior to increase concentrates in diet

 

Retroviruses

-OPP, CAEV
-slow viruses (months-years)
-transmission by nasal/oral secretions on fomites
- lambs can be infected by contaminated milk

 

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia

-in mature sheep
-retrovirus
-annual testing
-histologic diagnosis
-NO TREATMENT
-put lambs on milk replacer
-SYMPTOMS: coughing, fever, lethargy, decrease appetite, bronchial exudate, slow chronic wasting, no inflammatory mastitis

 

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis

-arthritis in older goats
-retrovirus
-SYMPTOMS: swollen joints, lameness, neurologic symptoms, incoordination, lethargy, convulsions, seizures, death, encephalitis in goats 1-6 months age
-cull and test others

 

Three most common causes of abortions in sheep

-toxoplasma
-campylobacterosis
-chlamydia

 

Specimens for Diagnosis of abortions

-REFRIGERATE SPECIMENS
-fetus
-placenta
-serum
-vagina swabs

 

Campylobacteriosis

"Vibriosis"
-late abortions, still births, premature births, weak lambs
-fetuses die 1-2days before aborted
-metritis 24-48 hours post abortion
-TREATMENT: kill vaccine, tetracyclines in feed

 

Metritis

Vaginal infection post abortion

 

Enzootic Abortion

-caused by chlamydia in LATE gestation
-affects yearlings and young ewes
-oral transmission in uterine discharge, placenta, aborted fetuses
-necrotic, leathery gray brown cotyledons
-serology; look for increase of antibodies
-TREATMENT: isolate ewe, kill vaccine, tetracyclines in feed last 4-6 weeks of gestation
-few to no lesions on fetus

 

Serology

check blood levels

 

Toxoplasmosis

-abortions, still births
-oocytes shed in feces of cats, ingested by ewe
-swollen cotyledons with scattered gray necrotic areas and mineralization
- no lesions on fetus
-animals get immune
-placental lesions are high (gray and white foci)
-NO TREATMENT; CONTROL CATS

 

Urolithiasis

-Phosphate stones in urethra
-decrease water intake
-improper Ca:P ratio
-SYMPTOMS: discomfort, restlessness, frequent attempts to urinate
- TREATMENT: surgery, urethrostomy, smooth muscle relaxers
-provide clean water, add up to 4% NaCl to ration, add 1/4 oz ammonium chloride per head per day

 

Club Lamb Fungus

"Ringworm" "Woolrot" "Wool Fungus"
-attacks hair shafts, surface of skin
-circular lesions, raised plaque or scaly lesions
-CONTAGIOUS (animal-animal, fomites)
-2 to 4 months untreated
-TREATMENTS: antifungal treatments, sunlight

 

Scours

-Enterotoxigenic e coli
-3-5 days old
-ewes carry organism and lambs get from nursing
-inadequate levels of colostral antibody
-SYMPTOMS: watery yellow diarrhea, dehydration, death
-FLUIDS NOT ANTIBIOTICS
-TREATMENT: E coli antiserium, vacc ewes 30 days prior to lambing, shear/crutch, clean pens, avoid deep mud/manure

 

Copper Toxicity

-50-100mg/ kg is ACUTE toxic
-intravascular hemolysis
-STRESS CAUSES!
-affects KIDNEYS
-TREATMENT: penicillamine 50 mg PO SID

 

Haemonchus Contortus

"Barberpole Worm"
-located in abomasum
-highly pathogenic
-major drug resistant
-major killer of sheep/goats
-causes bottle jaw, anemia, hypoproteinemia

 

Hypoproteinemia

loss of proteins in vessels and a decrease in oncotic pressure to decrease fluid flow

 

Anemia

low RBCs

 

Haemonchus Contortus Life Cycle

-lay eggs in feces
-molt
-crawl to standing forage
-crawl up grass 2-3 feet from forages
-ingested by host
-adults in abomasum

 

Haemonchus Contortus Treatment

-MOST EFFECTIVE: cydectin, levamisole
-NON EFFECTIVE: icomec, safeguard, panacure

 

Haemonchus Contortus Minimizing Restance

-must kill 90% at recommended dosage rate
-Deworm strategically
-FAMACHA card; 3 and below treat
-provide tannin rich forages

 

Common Pathogens in Swine Resp Diseases

-Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
-Mycoplasma (most common)
-Swine Influenza Virus

 

Swine Mycoplasma Pneumonia

-leading cause of CHRONIC pneumonia
-bacterial and viral infections
-16% reduced growth rate
-22% reduced feed consumption
- moderate morbidity, low mortality
-SYMPTOMS: chronic cough, death (sec bacterial inf), swollen joints, poor coat, loss of condition, stunting, lameness, inner ear inf (head tilt)
-DIAGNOSIS: by symptoms
-TREATMENT: serology, vaccines (vaccinate at 7 days and weaning)
-sensitive to tetracyclines, lincomycin, tiamulin

 

Thumps

jerky respiration from spasms of diaphragm

 

Foot Rot

-in moist soil
-usually 1 back foot
-SYMPTOMS: lameness, swollen foot
-TREATMENT: tetracyclines, foot baths with disinfectants
-Skin between hoove soften, being more susceptible to tearing and lesions causing swellling

 

Pruritis

Itching!!

 

Ataxia

Unable to walk

 

Scrapie

-Vertical and horzontial transmission
-infected placenta
-infectious prion found in certain breeds/lines
-TREATMENT: none
-SYMPTOMS: loss of wool on sides/flanks, tremble, 'nibbling' reflex, incoordination, ataxia, recumbancy, death
-examin flock on regular basis

 

White Muscle Disease

-lambs at birth to 8 weeks old
-rapidly growing, heavily muscled lambs
-Vit E, Selenium Deficiency
-SYMPTOMS: weakness, poor suckling reflex, stiffness, arch back, sawhorse stance, resp distress, death
-degeneration of heart and skeletal muscles
-TREATMENT: inj ewes with Selenium and Vit E the last month of preg, treat lambs at birth

 

Swine Influenza Virus

-caused by stress (new breeding stock, new feeder pigs, return from livestock shows)
-high morbitity rate
- incubation is 18-24 hours
-SYMPTOMS: coughing, sneezing, muscular stiffness, pain, fever, anorexia, lung edema, thumps
-damages mucociliary escalator
-DIAGNOSIS: isolate tissue from dead pig; serology
-TREATMENT: no specific treatment; antibiotics, killed vaccine
-PREVENTION: draft free house, clean bedding, sanitary nursing care; 2-6 weeks

 

Atrophic Rhinitis

-Pasteurella Multicocida
-MGMT FACTORS: over crowding, poor ventilitation/sanitation, cont getting new pigs
-SYMPTOMS: sneezing, nasal discharge, deformity of snout, decrease feed/growth, severe atrophy of nasal turbinates
-TREATMENT: inj baytril, vaccine MUST contain pasteurella toxin, vaccinate sows prior to farrowing, antibiotics in feed
-RESISTANT TO MACROLIDES, CEPHLOSPORINS

 

Porcine Pleuropneumonia

"APP"
-all age susceptible, mostly younger pigs
-SYMPTOMS: fever of 106, no resp signs, mouth breathing, lethargy, foamy/bloody nasal/oral discharge, skin turns blue, cytotoxins/hemolysins destroy RBCs/WBCs and deoxygenate blood
-TREATMENT: Draxxin, Micotil, Excenel
-SPF: Specific Pathogen Free

 

Glassers

-Attacks serosal membranes
-affects weaned piglets
-found in nasal of healthy pigs
-SYMPTOMS: fever, coughing, cyanosis, lameness, meningitis, death
-TREATMENT: Draxxin, vaccinate
-DIAGNOSIS: by symptoms

 

Serosal Membranes affected in Glassers

-Lungs: pleurisky and dark red/purple
-Heart: pericarditis
-Intestines: Peritonitis
-Joints: swollen/arthritis
-Brain: meningitis

 

Porcine Circovirus

-Post Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome
-Damages immune system
-causes immunosuppression
-SYMPTOMS: ill, weight loss, inflammation of skin, kidneys, lungs
-TREATMENT: none
-DIAGNOSIS: Histopathology, serology, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry
-PREVENTION: Vaccine, AI/AO, Bird/Rodent control, sanitation, housing environment

 

SMEDI

(Stillbirths; Mummies; Embryonic death; Infertility)
-70% of stillbirths occur during farrowing
-REDUCING STILLBIRTHS: proper nutrition, temp of farrowing house, litter size, body condition, age, supervision
-IF MUMMIFIED: measured in mm; measure head to rump divide by 3 + 21

 

Porcine Reproductive and Resp Syndrome

PRRS
-mystery swine disease
-caused by RNA enveloped virus
-TRANSMISSION: pig-pig, airborne
-SYMPTOMS OF BRED SOWS: abortions, increase stillborns/mummies, increase small litters with weak pigs
-SYMPTOMS OF NURSING/GROWING/FINISHING:
increase mortality, pneumonia, fever, decrease hair coat, enlarged lymph nodes, decrease appetite/ wt gain, increased bacterical infections
-TREATMENT: none
-DIAGNOSE: based on symptoms, isolate virus
-PREVENTION: vaccine, AI/AO, avoid mixing age groups, serostains

 

Brucellosis

-all ages affected
-TRANSMISSION: pig-pig, venereal
-SYMPTOMS SOWS: abortions, infertility, metritis
-SYMPTOMS BOARS: orchitis, infertility
-SYMPTOMS NURSING/GROWERS: lameness, post paralysis
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, blood samples
-TREATMENT: control vectors, good herd biosecurity, depopulate/repopulate with new pigs

 

Orchitis

Swelling testicles

 

Parvovirus

-DNA virus
-resistant to disinfectants, environment
-affects pregnany sows
-TRANSMISSION: oronasal, venereal, aerosol
-SYMPTOMS: infertility, stillbirths, mummies, reduces litter size
-FETAL AGE: under 35 days---> embryonic death
35-65 days---> mummy
above 65 days---> old enough to fight disease
-most common in first litter guilts
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, virus isolation
-TREATMENT: vaccine, blood test

 

Leptosiprosis

-Bratislava
-adults are affected
-zoonotic disease
-TRANSMISSION: H2O, rodents, feed
-IN URINE!!!!!!!!!!!!
-SYMPTOMS: abortions, SB, weak pigs, anorexia, pyrexia, listlessness
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, isolate tissue
-TREATMENT: Biomycin, in feed, killed vaccine, clean H2O, control rodents
-DDX: pseudorabies, swine flu, mycotoxins, seasonal, PRRS, Brucellosis

 

Mycotoxins

-Produced by MOLD
- Suspect when 2-3 abortions occur in short period
-PREVENTIONS: clean feed bins

 

Mulberry Heart Disease

-weaning piglets affects
-Selenium/ Vitamin E deficiency
-SYMPTOMS: sudden death
-POST MORTEM LESIONS: fluid around heart/lungs, hemorrhage/pale spots in heart muscle
-DIAGNOSIS: histological samples, postmortem lesions
-TREATMENT: add vitamin E/ Selenium to feed or Injection

 

Erysipelas

"Diamond Skin Disease"
-world wide
-affects man, rodents, mammals, turkeys, wild birds, sheep
-healthy animals carry in tonsils, intestines, gall bladder
-associated with stress
-shed in urine, feces, saliva
-everything is contaminated
-SYMPTOMS: sudden death, swollen joints, fever, skin lesions, sudden onset
-TREATMENT: killed vaccine, inj Draxxin every 10 days

 

Exudate

slimy discharge

 

Pyrexia

Fever

 

Staphylococcus Hyicus

"Greasy Pig Disease"
-suckling pigs affected
-SYMPTOMS: brown greasy discharge on skin, ulcerative lesions, foul odor, death from kidney failure
- TREATMENT: No vaccine, lincomycin

 

Pseudorabies

-Herpesvirus (persistant/latent forms)
- affects other species; MOSTLY SUCKLING PIGS
-TRANSMISSION: airborne, lateral/ vertical
-SYMPTOMS: abortions (sows), excessive salivation, fever, depression, convulsions, enters nervous tissue---> death 6-10 days
-IF RECOVERED: blind, partial paralysis
-TREATMENT: remove/ euthanize pigs, live and inactivated vaccines, Depopulate/Repopulate

 

Swine Dysentery

-Colon affected
-pigs 10-12 weeks old affected
-morbitity 90%, mortality 30%
-get immune to it
-CAUSES: stress, vectors
-SYMPTOMS: yellow/gray/bloody diarrhea, kicking at abdomen DIE FROM DEHYDRATION/ACIDOSIS
-TREATMENT: lincomycin, bacitracin in H2O, disinfect premises, no vaccine, AI/AO, Rodent control

 

Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)

-Corona virus
-PIGS UNDER 21 DAYS: high mortality
-GROWER/FINISHER PIGS: unthrifty
-ADULTS: mild affected
-SYMPTOMS: fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea, decreased appetite, dehydration, foul odor
-POST MORTEM: thin intestinal wall, undigested milk in intestine
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, acidic diarrhea
-TREATMENT: reduce chilling, hydrate/electrolytes, sustain E
-PREVENTION: vector control, vaccine questionable, grind small intestine of dead pigs and feed to sows to give them the bug

 

Porcine Proliferative Enterophathy

-Garden Hose Gut
-grower pigs are chronic
-Young/ finisher pigs are acute
-Commonly found on pig farms
-affected by fecal/ oral

 

ileitis

-CHRONIC SYMPTOMS: grower piggies (40-150lbs), severe loss condition, decrease FCR, increase feed costs, poor doers, death
-ACUTE SYMPTOMS: 13 day incubation period, death, anemia, lethargy, decrease appetite, dark red diarrhea, in pigs over 150 lbs

Enterotoxemia type C

"Purple Gut"
- causes hemorrhagic enteritis and bloody scours
-first month or two of life
-SYMPTOMS: depression, bloody scours, abd pain, convulsions, sudden death (within 24 hours)
-TREATMENT: vaccinate preg ewes 30 days before birthing, vaccinate lambs at 2-3 days, then in 2 weeks.

Tetanus

-spores germinate in tissue
-symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after entering wound
- sudden noises cause violent contractions of muscles
-SYMPTOMS: sawhorse stance, lock jaw, death when resp muscles become paralyzed
-TREATMENT: clean wound and inj penicillin/antitoxin, vaccinate ewes 30 days before lambing, vaccinate lambs when castrating/docking.

Pregnancy Toxemia

"Ketosis"
-occurs in ewes at least 6 weeks of gestation
-low energy, higher growth rate of fetus
-Too thin/ too fat are more susceptible
-SYMPTOMS: poor appetite, lethargy, incoordination, aimlessness walking, recumbancy, death
-TREATMENT: oral propylene gycol 2 oz TID, induce parturition More Bonuses.

Types of Vaccines

-Live: contains strains of the infected agent
-modified live: agent replicated, but no symptoms
-killed/inactivated: organism killed; no growth
-autogenous: infection on farm, you make the vaccine from the infection

Pneumonia in Sheep

-major cause of economic loss
-cranal ventral part of lung affected first; firm tissue
-adenovirus, parainfluenza, pasteurella, bot flies, chlamydia, mycoplasma
-CAUSES: dust, increase ammonia, drafty barns, nutrient deficiency, crowding, inadequate colostrum and colostral antibodies
-SYMPTOMS: depression, labored breathing, decrease appetite, coughing, fever, nasal/ocular discharge, death
-TREATMENT: micotil, excenel, CTC to mass treat, supportive therapy

Contagious Ecthyma

"Sore Mouth" "Orf"
- caused by pox virus
-introduced by new or show animals
- persists in scabs from lesions or pastures
-tiny red nodules on lips turn into blisters then thick brown scabs form
- nursing ewes can get lesions on udders from infected lamb---> causes mastitis
- chronic infections in lambs can lose condition
- TREATMENT: live vaccine on inside thigh (2x) in lambs---> 1 month of age, separate vaccinated from non vaccinated

Caseous Lymphadenitis

-found in soil where grazing
-abscesses with thick green pus
-when ruptured, contaminate EVERYTHING
-lymph nodes near head/neck are affected
- internal abscess may affect liver, kidneys, repro track, nervous system
- lose weight and body condition
-TREATMENT: vaccinate, culling, flush and pack with iodine soaked gauze

C. Perfringens Type D

"Overeating Disease" "Pulpy Kidney Disease"
- in lambs 1 month of age or older
-CAUSED BY: excess feeding--->increases starch in rumen--->growth of clostridia and toxin production
-SYMPTOMS: excitement, convulsions, incoordination
- causes rapid degeneration of kidneys
-TREATMENT: vaccinate preg ewes 30 day prior to lambing, vaccinate lambs prior to increase concentrates in diet

Retroviruses

-OPP, CAEV
-slow viruses (months-years)
-transmission by nasal/oral secretions on fomites
- lambs can be infected by contaminated milk

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia

-in mature sheep
-retrovirus
-annual testing
-histologic diagnosis
-NO TREATMENT
-put lambs on milk replacer
-SYMPTOMS: coughing, fever, lethargy, decrease appetite, bronchial exudate, slow chronic wasting, no inflammatory mastitis

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis

-arthritis in older goats
-retrovirus
-SYMPTOMS: swollen joints, lameness, neurologic symptoms, incoordination, lethargy, convulsions, seizures, death, encephalitis in goats 1-6 months age
-cull and test others

Three most common causes of abortions in sheep

-toxoplasma
-campylobacterosis
-chlamydia

Specimens for Diagnosis of abortions

-REFRIGERATE SPECIMENS
-fetus
-placenta
-serum
-vagina swabs

Campylobacteriosis

"Vibriosis"
-late abortions, still births, premature births, weak lambs
-fetuses die 1-2days before aborted
-metritis 24-48 hours post abortion
-TREATMENT: kill vaccine, tetracyclines in feed

Metritis

Vaginal infection post abortion

Enzootic Abortion

-caused by chlamydia in LATE gestation
-affects yearlings and young ewes
-oral transmission in uterine discharge, placenta, aborted fetuses
-necrotic, leathery gray brown cotyledons
-serology; look for increase of antibodies
-TREATMENT: isolate ewe, kill vaccine, tetracyclines in feed last 4-6 weeks of gestation
-few to no lesions on fetus

Serology

check blood levels

Toxoplasmosis

-abortions, still births
-oocytes shed in feces of cats, ingested by ewe
-swollen cotyledons with scattered gray necrotic areas and mineralization
- no lesions on fetus
-animals get immune
-placental lesions are high (gray and white foci)
-NO TREATMENT; CONTROL CATS

Urolithiasis

-Phosphate stones in urethra
-decrease water intake
-improper Ca:P ratio
-SYMPTOMS: discomfort, restlessness, frequent attempts to urinate
- TREATMENT: surgery, urethrostomy, smooth muscle relaxers
-provide clean water, add up to 4% NaCl to ration, add 1/4 oz ammonium chloride per head per day

Club Lamb Fungus

"Ringworm" "Woolrot" "Wool Fungus"
-attacks hair shafts, surface of skin
-circular lesions, raised plaque or scaly lesions
-CONTAGIOUS (animal-animal, fomites)
-2 to 4 months untreated
-TREATMENTS: antifungal treatments, sunlight

Scours

-Enterotoxigenic e coli
-3-5 days old
-ewes carry organism and lambs get from nursing
-inadequate levels of colostral antibody
-SYMPTOMS: watery yellow diarrhea, dehydration, death
-FLUIDS NOT ANTIBIOTICS
-TREATMENT: E coli antiserium, vacc ewes 30 days prior to lambing, shear/crutch, clean pens, avoid deep mud/manure

Copper Toxicity

-50-100mg/ kg is ACUTE toxic
-intravascular hemolysis
-STRESS CAUSES!
-affects KIDNEYS
-TREATMENT: penicillamine 50 mg PO SID

Haemonchus Contortus

"Barberpole Worm"
-located in abomasum
-highly pathogenic
-major drug resistant
-major killer of sheep/goats
-causes bottle jaw, anemia, hypoproteinemia

Hypoproteinemia

loss of proteins in vessels and a decrease in oncotic pressure to decrease fluid flow

Anemia

low RBCs

Haemonchus Contortus Life Cycle

-lay eggs in feces
-molt
-crawl to standing forage
-crawl up grass 2-3 feet from forages
-ingested by host
-adults in abomasum

Haemonchus Contortus Treatment

-MOST EFFECTIVE: cydectin, levamisole
-NON EFFECTIVE: icomec, safeguard, panacure

Haemonchus Contortus Minimizing Restance

-must kill 90% at recommended dosage rate
-Deworm strategically
-FAMACHA card; 3 and below treat
-provide tannin rich forages

Common Pathogens in Swine Resp Diseases

-Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
-Mycoplasma (most common)
-Swine Influenza Virus

Swine Mycoplasma Pneumonia

-leading cause of CHRONIC pneumonia
-bacterial and viral infections
-16% reduced growth rate
-22% reduced feed consumption
- moderate morbidity, low mortality
-SYMPTOMS: chronic cough, death (sec bacterial inf), swollen joints, poor coat, loss of condition, stunting, lameness, inner ear inf (head tilt)
-DIAGNOSIS: by symptoms
-TREATMENT: serology, vaccines (vaccinate at 7 days and weaning)
-sensitive to tetracyclines, lincomycin, tiamulin

Thumps

jerky respiration from spasms of diaphragm

Foot Rot

-in moist soil
-usually 1 back foot
-SYMPTOMS: lameness, swollen foot
-TREATMENT: tetracyclines, foot baths with disinfectants
-Skin between hoove soften, being more susceptible to tearing and lesions causing swellling

Pruritis

Itching!!

Ataxia

Unable to walk

Scrapie

-Vertical and horzontial transmission
-infected placenta
-infectious prion found in certain breeds/lines
-TREATMENT: none
-SYMPTOMS: loss of wool on sides/flanks, tremble, 'nibbling' reflex, incoordination, ataxia, recumbancy, death
-examin flock on regular basis

White Muscle Disease

-lambs at birth to 8 weeks old
-rapidly growing, heavily muscled lambs
-Vit E, Selenium Deficiency
-SYMPTOMS: weakness, poor suckling reflex, stiffness, arch back, sawhorse stance, resp distress, death
-degeneration of heart and skeletal muscles
-TREATMENT: inj ewes with Selenium and Vit E the last month of preg, treat lambs at birth

Swine Influenza Virus

-caused by stress (new breeding stock, new feeder pigs, return from livestock shows)
-high morbitity rate
- incubation is 18-24 hours
-SYMPTOMS: coughing, sneezing, muscular stiffness, pain, fever, anorexia, lung edema, thumps
-damages mucociliary escalator
-DIAGNOSIS: isolate tissue from dead pig; serology
-TREATMENT: no specific treatment; antibiotics, killed vaccine
-PREVENTION: draft free house, clean bedding, sanitary nursing care; 2-6 weeks

Atrophic Rhinitis

-Pasteurella Multicocida
-MGMT FACTORS: over crowding, poor ventilitation/sanitation, cont getting new pigs
-SYMPTOMS: sneezing, nasal discharge, deformity of snout, decrease feed/growth, severe atrophy of nasal turbinates
-TREATMENT: inj baytril, vaccine MUST contain pasteurella toxin, vaccinate sows prior to farrowing, antibiotics in feed
-RESISTANT TO MACROLIDES, CEPHLOSPORINS

Porcine Pleuropneumonia

"APP"
-all age susceptible, mostly younger pigs
-SYMPTOMS: fever of 106, no resp signs, mouth breathing, lethargy, foamy/bloody nasal/oral discharge, skin turns blue, cytotoxins/hemolysins destroy RBCs/WBCs and deoxygenate blood
-TREATMENT: Draxxin, Micotil, Excenel
-SPF: Specific Pathogen Free

Glassers

-Attacks serosal membranes
-affects weaned piglets
-found in nasal of healthy pigs
-SYMPTOMS: fever, coughing, cyanosis, lameness, meningitis, death
-TREATMENT: Draxxin, vaccinate
-DIAGNOSIS: by symptoms

Serosal Membranes affected in Glassers

-Lungs: pleurisky and dark red/purple
-Heart: pericarditis
-Intestines: Peritonitis
-Joints: swollen/arthritis
-Brain: meningitis

Porcine Circovirus

-Post Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome
-Damages immune system
-causes immunosuppression
-SYMPTOMS: ill, weight loss, inflammation of skin, kidneys, lungs
-TREATMENT: none
-DIAGNOSIS: Histopathology, serology, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry
-PREVENTION: Vaccine, AI/AO, Bird/Rodent control, sanitation, housing environment

SMEDI

(Stillbirths; Mummies; Embryonic death; Infertility)
-70% of stillbirths occur during farrowing
-REDUCING STILLBIRTHS: proper nutrition, temp of farrowing house, litter size, body condition, age, supervision
-IF MUMMIFIED: measured in mm; measure head to rump divide by 3 + 21

Porcine Reproductive and Resp Syndrome

PRRS
-mystery swine disease
-caused by RNA enveloped virus
-TRANSMISSION: pig-pig, airborne
-SYMPTOMS OF BRED SOWS: abortions, increase stillborns/mummies, increase small litters with weak pigs
-SYMPTOMS OF NURSING/GROWING/FINISHING:
increase mortality, pneumonia, fever, decrease hair coat, enlarged lymph nodes, decrease appetite/ wt gain, increased bacterical infections
-TREATMENT: none
-DIAGNOSE: based on symptoms, isolate virus
-PREVENTION: vaccine, AI/AO, avoid mixing age groups, serostains

Brucellosis

-all ages affected
-TRANSMISSION: pig-pig, venereal
-SYMPTOMS SOWS: abortions, infertility, metritis
-SYMPTOMS BOARS: orchitis, infertility
-SYMPTOMS NURSING/GROWERS: lameness, post paralysis
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, blood samples
-TREATMENT: control vectors, good herd biosecurity, depopulate/repopulate with new pigs

Orchitis

Swelling testicles

Parvovirus

-DNA virus
-resistant to disinfectants, environment
-affects pregnany sows
-TRANSMISSION: oronasal, venereal, aerosol
-SYMPTOMS: infertility, stillbirths, mummies, reduces litter size
-FETAL AGE: under 35 days---> embryonic death
35-65 days---> mummy
above 65 days---> old enough to fight disease
-most common in first litter guilts
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, virus isolation
-TREATMENT: vaccine, blood test

Leptosiprosis

-Bratislava
-adults are affected
-zoonotic disease
-TRANSMISSION: H2O, rodents, feed
-IN URINE!!!!!!!!!!!!
-SYMPTOMS: abortions, SB, weak pigs, anorexia, pyrexia, listlessness
-DIAGNOSIS: serology, isolate tissue
-TREATMENT: Biomycin, in feed, killed vaccine, clean H2O, control rodents
-DDX: pseudorabies, swine flu, mycotoxins, seasonal, PRRS, Brucellosis

Mycotoxins

-Produced by MOLD
- Suspect when 2-3 abortions occur in short period
-PREVENTIONS: clean feed bins

Mulberry Heart Disease

-weaning piglets affects
-Selenium/ Vitamin E deficiency
-SYMPTOMS: sudden death
-POST MORTEM LESIONS: fluid around heart/lungs, hemorrhage/pale spots in heart muscle
-DIAGNOSIS: histological samples, postmortem lesions
-TREATMENT: add vitamin E/ Selenium to feed or Injection

Erysipelas

"Diamond Skin Disease"
-world wide
-affects man, rodents, mammals, turkeys, wild birds, sheep
-healthy animals carry in tonsils, intestines, gall bladder
-associated with stress
-shed in urine, feces, saliva
-everything is contaminated
-SYMPTOMS: sudden death, swollen joints, fever, skin lesions, sudden onset
-TREATMENT: killed vaccine, inj Draxxin every 10 days

Exudate

slimy discharge

Pyrexia

Fever

Staphylococcus Hyicus

"Greasy Pig Disease"
-suckling pigs affected
-SYMPTOMS: brown greasy discharge on skin, ulcerative lesions, foul odor, death from kidney failure
- TREATMENT: No vaccine, lincomycin

Pseudorabies

-Herpesvirus (persistant/latent forms)
- affects other species; MOSTLY SUCKLING PIGS
-TRANSMISSION: airborne, lateral/ vertical
-SYMPTOMS: abortions (sows), excessive salivation, fever, depression, convulsions, enters nervous tissue---> death 6-10 days
-IF RECOVERED: blind, partial paralysis
-TREATMENT: remove/ euthanize pigs, live and inactivated vaccines, Depopulate/Repopulate

Swine Dysentery

-Colon affected
-pigs 10-12 weeks old affected
-morbitity 90%, mortality 30%
-get immune to it
-CAUSES: stress, vectors
-SYMPTOMS: yellow/gray/bloody diarrhea, kicking at abdomen DIE FROM DEHYDRATION/ACIDOSIS
-TREATMENT: lincomycin, bacitracin in H2O, disinfect premises, no vaccine, AI/AO, Rodent control

All Posts
×

Almost done…

We just sent you an email. Please click the link in the email to confirm your subscription!

OKSubscriptions powered by Strikingly